Main Article Content
This article focuses on the creation of instructional materials that serve as a personal environment for learning a less-commonly-taught language. The study aims to raise awareness of ways in which digital personal learning environments can be used in tandem with more formal learning strategies. The study explores self-regulated language learning within personal environments created for intermediate and advanced Turkish. We reviewed the conceptual background for the approach as well as the project-based learning strategies scaffolded in the online thematic materials. Through a 3-year longitudinal inquiry and semi-structured interviews with eight instructors who implemented the approach in four universities, the authors analyze the impact of personalized learning in developing deeper levels of language apprenticeship. The instructors we interviewed report increased growth in proficiency and accuracy in linguistic and cultural learning, as experienced in their courses through their formative and summative assessments, as well as the realization of most pedagogical goals related to language acquisition in a rich format. In light of the needs for teacher education adapted to new technologies, the paper highlights the difficulties of pedagogy for autonomy.
Authors retain copyright to their work, licensing it under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License and grant the journal exclusive right of first publication with the work simultaneously and it allows others to copy and redistribute the work for non-commercial purposes, with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in IOJET and provided that no changes were made on the article.
Allwright, D. (2005). Developing principles for practitioner research: The case of exploratory practice. Modern Language Journal, 89(3), 353–366.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1999). ACTFL proficiency guidelines—speaking. Retrieved from http://www.actfl .org/fi les/public/Guidelinesspeak.pdf
Attwell, G. (2007). Personal learning environments––the future of e-learning? eLearning Papers, 2(1). Retrieved from: http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media11561.pdf
Beckett, G. H., & Miller, P. C. (2006). Project-based second and foreign language education: Past, present, and future. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Belanger, Y. (2005). Duke University iPod first year experience: Final evaluation report. Retrieved from http://cit.duke.edu/pdf/reports/ipod_initiative_04_05.pdf
Boaler, J. (2002). Learning from teaching: Exploring the relationship between reform curriculum and equity. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 33(4), 239–258.
Boss, S., & Krauss, J. (2007). Reinventing project-based learning: Your field guide to real-world projects in the digital age. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
Brito, C., & Baía, M. (2007). WebQuests: A tool or a transdisciplinary methodology? Interactive Educational Multimedia, 15, 52–64. Retrieved from www.ub.es/multimedia/iem
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18, 32–42.
Carr, N. (2011). The shallows: What the Internet is doing to our brains. New York, NY: Norton.
Castañeda, L., & Soto, J. (2010) Building personal learning environments by using and mixing ICT tools in a professional way. Digital Education Review, 18, 9–25. Retrieved from: http://greav.ub.edu/der
Colpaert, J. (2006). Pedagogically-driven design for online language teaching and learning. CALICO Journal, 23(3), 477–497.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13, 3–21.
Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 3–8.
Ding, H. (2008). The use of cognitive and social apprenticeship to teach a disciplinary genre. Written Communication, 25(1), 3–52.
Entwistle, N. (2000, November). Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment: conceptual frameworks and educational contexts. Paper presented at TLRP Conference, Leicester, Great Britain.
Entwistle, N. (2008). Influences on student learning and understanding at university. EIGER Conference.
Girisen, N., Söker, N., Zenci, C. S., Saltık, O., Bozkurt, F., & Pilanci, H. (2010, November). Synchronous facilitation in distance foreign language teaching. Paper presented at the Third ICT for Language Learning Conference, Florence, Italy.
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Godwin-Jones, R. (2011). Emerging technologies: autonomous language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 15(3), 4–11.
Goetz, J. P., & LeCompte, M. D. (1984). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. New York: Academic Press.
Jiménez Raya, M. (2011): Enhancing pedagogy for autonomy: The potential of a case-based approach in promoting reflection and action. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 151–163.
Jiménez Raya, M., Lamb, T., & Flávia V. (2007). Pedagogy for autonomy in language education in Europe: A framework for learner and teacher development. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.
Karaman, C., Ökten, C., & Tochon, F. V. (2012). Learning the deep approach: language teachers’ voices. Porta Linguarum, 18, 79–95.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York, NY: Longman.
Lantolf, J., & Thorn, S. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: Some fundamental considerations revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14–29.
Maley, A. (2011). Squaring the circle—reconciling materials as constraint with materials as empowerment. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Materials development for language teaching (2nd ed., pp. 379–402). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning. I—Outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46(1), 4–11.
Mukundan, J. (2008). Multimedia materials in developing countries: The Malaysian experience. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), English language teaching materials: A critical review (pp. 100–109). London, UK: Continuum.
Paul, R. (1995). The critical connection: Higher order thinking that unifies curriculum, instruction, and learning. In J. Willsen, & A. J. A. Binker (Eds.), Critical thinking: How to prepare students for a rapidly changing world (pp.97–107). Santa Rosa, CA: Critical Thinking.
Pilanci, H., Bozkurt, F., Zenci, C. S., Söker, N., & Girisen, N. (2010). An Internet based language teaching model: Turkish language case. Paper presented at the Third ICT for Language Learning Conference, Florence, Italy.
Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Reigeluth, C. (1999). Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schaffert, S., & Hilzensauer, W. (2008). On the way towards personal learning environments: Seven crucial aspects. eLearning Papers, 9. Retrieved from: http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media15971.pdf
Shaules, J. (2007). Deep culture: The hidden challenges of global living. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Syed Khuzzan, Sh. M. , Goulding, J. S., & Underwood, J. (2008). Personalised learning environments: Core development issues for construction. Interactive Educational Multimedia, 17, 48–67. Retrieved from www.ub.es/multimedia/iem
Thompson, I. (1996). Assessing foreign language skills: Data from Russian. Modern Language Journal, 80, 47–65.
Tochon, F. V. (1999). Video Study Groups for Education, Professional Development and Change. Madison, WI: Atwood.
Tochon, F. V. (2002). Tropics of Teaching: Productivity, Warfare, and Priesthood. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Tochon, F. V. (2007). From video cases to video pedagogy: Video feedback in an educational culture sharing differences. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 53–66). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Tochon, F. V. (2008). A brief history of video feedback and its role in foreign language education. CALICO, special issue, 25(3), 420–435.
Tochon, F. V. (2009). The key to global understanding: World languages education—why schools need to adapt. Review of Educational Research. 79(2), 650–682.
Tochon, F. V. (2010). A deep approach to language multimedia and evaluation: For a more colorful future. Invited Keynote Speech. Proceedings of the Fourteenth international conference of APAMALL and ROCMELIA (pp. 73–92). Kaohsiung, Taiwan: National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Tochon, F. V. (2010). Deep Education. Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 1, 1–12.
Tochon, F. V. (2011). Reflecting on the paradoxes of foreign language teacher education: A critical system analysis. Porta Linguarum, 15, 7–24.
Tochon, F. V. (2013). Help them learn a language deeply. The deep approach to languages and cultures. Blue Mounds, WI: Deep University Press.
Tochon, F. V., Argit-Ökten, C., Karaman, A. C., Druc, I. C. (2009–2012). A deep approach to Turkish teaching and learning. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, International Research Studies, CFDA 84.017A-3.
Tochon, F. V., & Black, N. J. (2007). Narrative analysis of electronic portfolios: preservice teachers’ struggles in researching pedagogically appropriate technology integration. CALICO Monograph Series “Preparing and developing technology-proficient L2 teachers,” 6, 295–320.
Tochon, F. V., & Hanson, D. (2003). The deep approach: World language teaching for community building. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
Tochon, F. V., & Lee, H. J. (2010, November). Internet-mediated videoconferencing and the zone of proximal identity development (ZPID) in second language education. Working Paper. University of Wisconsin–Madison, School of Education. Madison, Wisconsin.
Tochon, F. V., Ökten, C. E., Karaman, A. C., & Druc, I. C. (2012). The deep approach to Turkish teaching and learning. Blue Mounds, WI: Deep University Press.
Tomlinson, B. (2012). Materials development for language learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 45(2), 143–179.
Türel, V. (2002). Beginning Turkish: CALICO software review. CALICO Journal, 20(3), 592–602.
Valtonen, T., Hacklin, S., Dillon, P., Vesisenaho, M., Kukkonen, J., & Hietanen, A. (2012). Perspectives on personal learning environments held by vocational students. Computers & Education, 58(2), 732–739.
van Harmelen, M. (2006). Personal learning environments. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2006, 5–7 July 2006, Kerkrade, The Netherlands.
van Lier, L. (2010). Forward: Agency, self and identity in language learning. In B. O’Rourke & L. Carson (Eds.), Language learner autonomy: Policy, curriculum, classroom (pp. ix–xviii). Oxford, UK: Peter Lang.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: diversity and universals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.